The Seven Qira'at of The Quran
The Seven Qira'at of The Qur'an What we imply by that is that this is the riwaya or Warsh or the riwaya of Hafs. It is the riwaya of a certain qira'a. Each qira'a derives its authority from a prominent leader of recitation in the second or third-century hijri that in turn traces their riwaya or transmission back with the Companions of the Prophet.
Examples of Various Qirats
There are small distinctions in these analyses, for example, where one quits, as in Surat al-Baqara (1 ): "Dhalika' l-Kitabu la rayb" or "Dhalika' l-Kitabu la rayba fih" as well as some voweling differences (" suddan" or "saddan"), and often a distinction in the letters because of various diacritical marks, as ya' or ta' (turja'una or yurja'una). Sometimes a word will have a shadda or otherwise have a shadda.
In this context, we need to state that the Prophet himself said that the Qur'an was revealed in 7 dialects (ahruf, sing harf). Harf below implies dialect, idiom, or mode of expression. Currently, throughout the khalifate of 'Uthman, this had given rise to squabbling. For instance, the Syrians adhered to Ubayy ibn Ka' b, the Kufans followed 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the people of Hims complied with al-Miqdad, and also individuals of Basra complied with Abu Musa. To put an end to these spats over which was best, 'Uthman chose to unify the area behind one message.
Throughout Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, Zayd ibn Thabit had actually been charged by Abu Bakr to congregate all the created parts of the Qur' an as well as put together a complete message (for a lot of huffaz had actually been eliminated in the Battle of Yamama). He did this, and also it is reported that he was the initial to collect the Qur' an in between two covers." This duplicate went from Abu Bakr to 'Umar and afterward to Hafsa.
' Uthman utilized it to make his copy which was after that distributed to all parts of the Muslim umma, but it is reported that 'Uthman "made the copies of the Qur' an" or "joined the Muslims on a solitary duplicate." The catalyst to do this was offered by Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman when he returned to Madina after observing local differences. He stated to him, "Take this umma in hand prior to they vary about guide like the Christians as well as Jews." So he sent for the copy made by Abu Bakr which was in the property of 'Umar's child, Hafsa.
The Qurayshi language was favored in this and also this got rid of much of the diversity, however, some of it was still mirrored in the various analyses since it was essentially a company of oral transmission, as well as there, were no diacritical marks in the 'Uthmanic script. People recited the Qur'an as they had actually read it from their teacher as well as they, in turn, handed down this oral transmission Ten recitations of Quran.
Categories of Qira'at
Within the qira'at, there are 2 categories:
- Mutawatir: a transmission that has independent chains of authorities so broad as to eliminate the possibility of any type of error and on which there is agreement.
- Mashhur: these are a little much less broad in their transmission, yet still so broad regarding make error highly not likely.
There are 7 mutawatir qira'at as well as 3 mashhur ones.
The Mutawatir Qirats:
- Nafi' (d. 169/785).
- Ibn Kathir (d. 120/737).
- Abu 'Amr ibn al-' Ala' (d. 154/762).
- Ibn 'Amir (d. 154/762).
- ' Asim (d. 127/744).
- Hamza (d. 156/772).
- al-Kisa' i (d. 189/904)
The Mashhur Qirats:
- Abu Ja' far (d. 130/747).
- Ya' qub (d. 205/820).
- Khalaf (d. 229/843)
There are additionally some "shadhdh" analyses, rare readings which are generally marked down.
Often they would certainly utilize one qira'a one day and an additional the following day. There was a slavegirl called Tawaddud in the time of Harun ar-Rashid that recognized all ten readings by heart,.
In 200 AH, Basra was reciting the qira'a of Abu 'Amr as well as Ya' qub, Kufa was utilizing Hamza, and 'Asim, Syria was making use of Ibn 'Amir, Makka had Ibn Kathir, and Madina was utilizing Nafi'. Egypt, which was the home of Warsh, utilized Warsh largely up until the arrival of the Turks. The Warsh riwaya of the qira'a of Nafi'.
Today, the two analyses that need to be made use of are the qira'a of 'Asim in the riwaya of Hafs, as well as the qira'a of Nafi' in the riwaya of Warsh. Likewise in use in Africa is the qira'a of Abu 'Amir in the riwaya of ad-Duri.
Currently, each of these analyses, or riwayas, is the whole of the Qur' an as stated by a master in all the variants which are transferred from him. It is a corupus of reciation. The forms of each recounting are referred to by the notable trainees of the master that stated them. So we will find the tariq (pl. turuq) of so-and-so, the student of the master. Then under the Turuq, there are also the wujuh. We locate the wajh of so-and-so from the tariq of so-and-so. There have to do with twenty riwayat and eighty turuq. So you can see just how great and accurate the scientific research of transmission was with these people. The distinction between the turuq as well as wujuh under a riwaya are so mild regarding be virtually undetectable. They are mainly in modulation and diction rather than voweling or inflection. This is the degree of treatment as well as accuracy which these people had.
What we mean by that is that this is the riwaya or Warsh or the riwaya of Hafs. The Syrians followed Ubayy ibn Ka' b, the Kufans complied with 'Abdullah ibn Mas' ud, the people of Hims complied with al-Miqdad, and also the people of Basra adhered to Abu Musa. In the time of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, Zayd ibn Thabit had been billed by Abu Bakr to collect with each other all the written components of the Qur' an and also compile a complete message (for a huge number of huffaz had actually been killed in the Battle of Yamama). The incentive to do this was given by Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman when he returned to Madina after observing regional distinctions. In 200 AH, Basra was stating the qira'a of Abu 'Amr as well as Ya' qub, Kufa was using Hamza, as well as 'Asim, Syria was using Ibn 'Amir, Makka had Ibn Kathir, as well as Madina was using Nafi'.